Journal of Taiwan Occupational Therapy Research and Practice
背景:全球性人口高齡化的結果使得各國的醫療經費大為提昇，這高齡化現象伴隨著 高齡者缺乏體能活動及不良體適能之現象，這些因子乃是預測高齡者失去生活獨立性、罹 患慢性疾病、甚至死亡的重要指標。目的:本研究目的有二:1. 探討 12 週體能活動介入 是否能有效促進社區高齡者之功能性體適能;2. 探討體能活動介入前的人口學變項與介 入後功能性體適能改變量之相關性。方法:採方便取樣，針對高雄某樂齡中心之 60 歲以 上高齡者，進行為期 12 週，每週 1 次，每次 50 分鐘體能活動，並於執行體能活動介入 前後進行功能性體適能之檢測。使用描述性統計來呈現參與者的基本資料，成對樣本 t 檢 定 (Paired t-test) 來檢定體能活動介入後對參與者體型與功能性體適能六個項目的成效。Spearman’s rho test 與 Pearson’s r 相關係數來檢驗參與者人口學變項與功能性體適能各 項目的改變量之相關性。結果:本研究參與者人數共 112 人，分別為男性 19 人女性 93 人。 在 12 週體能活動介入後，女性在腰圍與臀圍有顯著的減少(腰圍從 83.42 公分至 82.13公分;臀圍從 94.85 公分至 93.68 公分，p < .01)。所有參與者在「坐椅站立」與「原地 踏步」兩個項目有顯著的進步(坐椅站立從 15.37 次至 20.47 次;原地踏步從 83.10 步至100.05 步，p < .01)。女性在「坐椅體前彎」與「抓背測驗」有顯著的進步(坐椅體前 彎從 8.45 公分至 12.40 公分;抓背測驗從 -2.11 公分至 -0.15 公分，p < .01)。此外，性 別與「坐椅體前彎」的改變量有正相關 ( r = .33 ; p < .01);年齡與「原地踏步」的改變量 有負相關 (r = -.26; p < .01)。結論:12 週的體能活動介入可有效提升高齡者們的下肢肌力 與心肺功能。整體而言，透過規律的體能活動來建立高齡者運動習慣，可降低肥胖與增進 功能性體適能。
Background: Aging growth might contribute importantly to the rise in health care costs. A lack of physical activity and poor physical tness could accelerate aging deterioration. Both, physical activity and physical fitness, are two important predictors in predicting the level ofindependence, chronic disease conditions, or even the mortality rate in elderly. Objective:The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore whether a 12-Weeks of physical activity intervention could effectively improve the functional physical tness of the elderly in the community; (2) to explore the correlations between the demographic variables before intervention and the changes of functional physical tness after interventions. Methods: The study used convenience sampling, the participants were recruited from a senior center in Kaohsiung. Participants, aged over 60 years, attended 50 minutes physical activity sections, once a week, for 12 weeks. The functional physical fitness test was administered to the participants before and after the interventions. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the participants’ information. Paired t-test was used to examine the effectiveness of the six items of functional physical faintness before and after the interventions. Spearman’s rho test and Pearson correlation coef cient (r) was used to examine the correlation between thedemographic variables before intervention and the changes of functional physical fitness.Results: A total of 112 participants (19 males, 93 females) participated in this study. After a 12-Weeks of physical activity intervention, the results showed that a significant reduction in waist circumference and hip (waist circumference from 83.42 cm to 82.13 cm; hip rangefrom 94.85 cm to 93.68 cm, p < .01) in female participants. All participants had significantimprovement in the “chair stand test” and “2-minute step test” (chair stand test from number15.37 to 20.47; 2-minute step test from 83.10 steps to 100.05 steps, p < .01). Female participants had signi cant improvement in “chair sit-and reach test” and “back scratch test” (chair sit-and reach test from 8.45 cm to 12.40 cm; back scratch test from -2.11 cm to -0.15cm, p < .01). In addition, the gender was positively correlated with the improvement of “chairsit-and reach test” (r = .33; p < .01); the age was negatively correlated with the improvementof “2-minute step test “ (r = -.26; p < .01). Conclusion: The 12-Weeks of physical activity intervention has shown the effectiveness in improving the lower limb muscle strength and cardiopulmonary function in elderly. Overall, the physical activity could be used as a motivational modality to promote the exercise habits in elderly, which in turn may improve the functional physical tness in elderly.