Journal of Taiwan Occupational Therapy Research and Practice
兒童透過社會參與發展社會互動、人際關係等，進一步達到自我滿足、價值。自閉症類群障礙症主要發生在兒童發展早期，其症狀之一包含社交互動上的缺陷，使得他們無法順暢的與他人進行溝通，造成其生活品質、健康狀況受到限制。本研究目的為:(1) 比較學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童與典型發展兒童於社會參與情況的差異;(2) 探討學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童社會參與和感覺處理各象限的相關性。研究工具包含社會參與量表、感覺處理能力剖析量2 簡短版。本研究收案人數為自閉症類群障礙兒童58 位、典型發展兒童51 位，結果呈現自閉症類群障礙兒童其社會參與的總活動數及差異度顯著低於典型發展兒童(p < .05)，自閉症類群障礙組參與平均5.7 項活動，參與差異度為63.03%;典型發展兒童組參與平均6.5 項活動，參與差異度為72.11%。然而，自閉症類群障礙兒童其社會參與的強度與典型發展兒童比較未有顯著性的差異。自閉症類群障礙兒童其在非結構性遊戲頻率顯著低於典型發展兒童，而其在規則性遊戲頻率顯著高於典型發展兒童。在友誼數量、品質的部份，典型發展兒童皆顯著優於自閉症類群障礙兒童(p < .05)。自閉症類群障礙兒童參與活動差異度與感覺敏感(r = -.311, p = .036)、感覺登錄(r = -.321, p = .030) 呈現顯著負相關。在參與技能課程頻率與感覺逃避呈現中度正相關(r = .498, p < .001);參與規則性遊戲頻率與感覺登錄呈現低度負相關(r = -.383, p = .003);參與非結構遊戲頻率與感覺逃避呈現低度負相關(r = -.344, p = .008)。本研究發現自閉症類群障礙兒童的社會參與的總活動數及差異度與一般典型發展兒童比較有顯著差異存在，其社會參與差異度與感覺敏感、感覺逃避、感覺登錄表現有相關性。建議未來臨床上職能治療師可以提供學齡前自閉症類群障礙兒童以感覺為基礎的介入，有助於增加其社會參與的機會。
Children can develop social interaction, interpersonal relationships, achieve self- satisfaction, and self-worth through social participation. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occur mainly in the early years of children’s life. One of its symptoms is social interaction deficits, so that they have difficulties to communicate with others smoothly. The purposes of this study were to compare the differences in social participation between preschool children with ASD and typically developing children and to examine the relationships between sensory processing patterns and social participation among preschool children with ASD. Measures included the Social Participation Scale and Sensory Profile 2 short version. This study included 58 children with ASD and 51 children with typical development. As a result, children with ASD had a significantly lower level of overall social participation and participated in a fewer number of activities than typically developing children (p < .05). Children with ASD participated in an average of 5.7 activities with a participation diversity of 63.03%; the typically developing children participated in an average of 6.5 activities with a participation diversity of 72.11%. However, intensity of social participation of children with ASD were not significantly different from that of typically developing children. Children with ASD had significantly lower frequency of non-structured play than typically developing children; however, children with ASD had a significantly higher frequency of structured play than typically developing children. In the number and quality of friendships, typically developing children were significantly better than children with ASD (p < .05). The participation diversity of children with ASD were significantly negative correlated with sensory sensitivity (r = -.311, p = .036) and sensory registration (r = -.321, p = .030). The frequency of participation in the skill curriculums was moderately positively correlated with sensory avoidance (r = .498, p < .001); the frequency of participation in structured play was negatively correlated with sensory registration (r = -.383, p = .003). The frequency of participation in non-structured paly was negatively associated with sensory avoidance (r = -.344, p = .008). The results from this study show that children with ASD showed significantly less social participation diversity than typically developing children. Their social participation diversity was associated with sensory sensitivity, sensory registration, and sensory avoidance. Occupational therapists provide sensory-based intervention for preschool children with ASD which may be beneficial in increasing their social participation.